Interactive Google map of massacres compiled by the Greek Genocide Resource Center. Zoom in or out. Click on individual location to read details. List appears below in chronological order.

The Greek Genocide involved the persecution of native Greeks living in the Ottoman Empire. While deportation to the arid interior of Turkey was the more effective way to liquidate Greek communities en masse, small and large-scale massacres were also committed. Below is a list of known massacres perpetrated during the Greek Genocide. The list was compiled by the Greek Genocide Resource Center and is not complete. While the list represents a substantial portion of the massacres perpetrated, the project is ongoing and more massacres will be added as they are documented. A massacre is generally defined as an indiscriminate and brutal killing of many people. In order to better define 'many people' we have chosen 20 as being the minimum number of people killed in order for a mass killing to qualify as a massacre, unless the massacre involved children, notables, wealthy citizens or religious clergy.  

Click here to view list of massacres from 1920-1923 

LIST AND MAP OF MASSACRES FROM 1912-1919

YEAR MONTH LOCATION DETAIL SOURCE
1912 Nov Ayvalik The Ottoman Army massacred 167 Christian men, women and children at the Greek village Aivali (near Lüleburgaz) and raped girls and women. - Turkish Atrocities. (1912, November 2). The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 17. Retrieved March 26, 2018,

- Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. p 25.
1912 Dec Gelibolu Ottoman troops massacre Greeks at Gelibolu (Gallipoli). The North West Post (Tasmania, Australia). 11 Dec 1912, p.3.
1912 Dec Mitylene Turks committ massacre of Christians at Mitylene. MASSACRE ON MITYLENE. (1912, December 21). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 19. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
1912   Keşan 300 Greeks massacred Source: Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. p 25.
1913 Jan Kumburgaz A Turkish fleet with 500 troops lands at Kumburgaz (Gr: Economio) and orders all young men over the age of 15 years to the sea-shore. 140 males comply and are massacred. Parish priest Neofytos is burnt alive. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. Constantinople, 1919. The Hesperia Press, p. 30.
1913   Kircasalih Kircasalih (Mega Zaloufi): 130 inhabitants killed when Ottoman forces reoccupied the town. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p.13.
1913 Apr Kastellorizo Turks from Asia Minor landed on the island which was mainly inhabited by Greeks, massacring Christians and violating women. CHRISTIANS MASSACRED. (1913, April 14). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 8. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
1913 Jul Tekirdağ The Ottoman Army killed 39 Greeks after reoccupying the town. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. p 60.
1913 Jul Gönence The Ottoman Army entered Gönence (Gr: Kalyvia) and looted all the houses and killed all the Christians they met. The village and neighborhood was full of corpses of men, women and children. ALLEGED TURKISH ATROCITIES. (1913, September 13). The Express and Telegraph (Adelaide, SA : 1867 - 1922), p. 6. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
1913 Jul Malkara Turkish soldiers massacre 300 Greeks at a rich monastery. Eighteen Greek villages also wiped out. Turks Massacre Greeks in Thrace. The New York Times, 28 July 1913, p. 3.
1913 Jul Hasköy The Ottoman Army entered the village on the 4th of July and began firing at men, women and children kiling a large number. Women were raped. The whole village was then burned. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. pp39-40.
1913 Jul Hemit Ottoman soldiers entered Hemit (Gr: Thymitkioi) on the 4th of July. The church was stripped and burned. All houses were looted and many were massacred. Women were raped. The village was burnt to ashes. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. pp40-41.
1913 Jul Hayrabolu Ottoman soldiers entered Hayrabolu (Gr: Charioupolis) and gathered all the women and girls from 8 through to 75 years of age then raped and tortured them. Some were mutilated and had their limbs and parts of their bodies cut off. Men were also tortured to death and others massacred. Hayrabolu (Gr: Charioupolis). Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. pp 45-47.
1913 Jul Kürtüllü The Ottoman Army entered Kürtüllü (Gr: Kiourtli) on the 4th of July and for 2 days began to plunder, beat and murder the residents. They burned most of the houses and partly burned the church. Turks from the region entered and took everything including furniture, cattle and food. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. p 41.
1913 Jul Bayramtepe The Army entered Bayramtepe (Gr: Temberikioi) on the 4th of July and burned the church and 30 houses. They then looted and massacred many of its inhabitants. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. p 41.
1914 May Seyrek The village, located in the district of Menemen, was besieged by thousands of armed Turks before it was set fire to and its inhabitants massacred. Women and children were literally butchered. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. pp. 79-80.
1914 May Didymoteicho Massacre of women and children. Those trying to escape the massacre crossed the Maritsa (Meriç) River and drowned after being shot at. SLAUGHTER OF GREEKS. (1914, May 19). The Bendigo Independent (Vic. : 1891 - 1918), p. 5.
1914 May Yenice Greeks from the village Yenice (Gr: Intzekioi) were driven out to the mountains where many were later found slain. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. pp 108-109.
1914 May Ormanlı Greeks from the village Ormanlı (Gr: Kastampoli) were driven out to the mountains where many were later found slain. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. pp 108-109.
1914 Jun Ulucak Two sargeants and 15-20 bandits invaded the town and looted and ransacked homes. Corpses of humans were found in the plains surrounding Ulucak. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. pp 127-128.
1914 Jun Foça Armed irregulars stormed the town of Foça (Gr: Phocaea). With the assistance of Ottoman officials approximately 100 Greeks including priests and children were massacred. The town was then looted. The remainder fled. GREEKS MASSACRED (1914, June 17). The Journal (Adelaide, SA : 1912 - 1923), p. 1 (4 P.M. EDITION). Retrieved November 4, 2017.

- Bjørnlund, M. Cited from The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks. Aristide Caratzas, 2012, pp153-154.
c.1914   Alaşehir  25 people massacred. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 87.
c.1914   Kula 32 people massacred. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 87.
c.1914   Salihli 28 people massacred. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 87.
c.1914   Denizli 35 people massacred. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 87.
1914 Jul Uzunada Turkish regular troups drive 16 Greeks to the town square where they are butchered. Two girls (14 and 17 y.o) successively violated by 25 soldiers). GREEKS MASSACRED. (1914, July 22). The Telegraph (Brisbane, Qld. : 1872 - 1947), p. 6. Retrieved September 6, 2017.

-Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p 86.
1914 Dec Erzurum Greeks and Armenians hanged without trial. Their corpses suspended from lamp posts for weeks. Turks passing by spat on their bodies and compelled the Christians to do likewise. POSITION IN ERZERUM: Armenians and Greeks Hanged by the Turks. (1914, December 15). Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate (NSW : 1876 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
1914 Dec Ayvalik Greeks massacred at Ayvalik. Houses pillaged and shops burned. GREEKS MASSACRED BY TURKS. The Washington Herald. (Washington, D.C.), 17 Dec. 1914, p. 1. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
1915 Mar Burhaniye 60 Christian families massacred at Burhaniye (Gr: Kemeri). MASSACRES BY TURKS AROUSE GREEKS' FURY. The Daytona daily news. (Daytona, Fla.), 15 March 1915, p. 1. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
1915 Mar Ayvalik Massacre of 40 Greeks. MASSACRES BY TURKS AROUSE GREEKS' FURY. The Daytona Daily News. (Daytona, Fla.), 15 March 1915, p. 1. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
1915 Apr Gümüshane 4,000 Greeks from the region escaped from Turkish military authorities and sought refuge in the forests of Gümüshane . Hard pressed by hunger, some managed to flee towards Russia while the remainder were caught, tortured then massacred, their bodies thrown into the Pyxites River. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p109.
1915 Jun Bodrum 18 inhabitants and one girl aged 16 slaughtered. Carroll N. Brown Ph.D and Theodore P. Ion D.C.L. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey Since the Beginning of the European War. Oxford University Press, 1918, p.30.
1915 Jul Kiosteniou 18 Greeks butchered at Kiosteniou. Carroll N. Brown Ph.D and Theodore P. Ion D.C.L. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey Since the Beginning of the European War. Oxford University Press, 1918, p.33.
1915 Sep İzmit Turks set fire to İzmit and conduct a general massacre of the population. TURKISH MASSACRE. (1915, September 6). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 - 1933), p. 7. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
1915 Nov Gölcük The village was surrounded by soldiers and gendarmes who opened fire causing villagers to flee to the mountains. They then set fire to the village. As villagers fled in terror, 30 were shot and killed at point blank range. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p.40.
c.1916   Tsiakharanton (Gr) Turks entered the village and slaughtered 40-50 people. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Eastern Seashores of Pontus. Volume D. Center of Asia Minor Studies, 2nd ed, Athens 2018, p. 376.
1916 Apr Edirne Massacre of 400 Greeks. GREEK MASSACRES. (1916, April 27). The Evening Telegraph (Charters Towers, Qld. : 1901 - 1921), p. 5. Retrieved October 25, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article212815360
1916 Apr İzmir Massacre of 200 Greeks in the İzmir (Gr: Smyrna) district. MASSACRE OF GREEKS. (1916, April 22). Daily Telegraph (Launceston, Tas. : 1883 - 1928), p. 7. Retrieved October 24, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article152760190
1916 Apr Vazelon Monastery The Vazelon Monastery in Maçka was the sight of a massacre of 487 people, mostly women and children who had been hiding in the forest. They were captured, violated within the monastery, and then massacred. Men were also murdered. The church was then burnt and destroyed, its furniture carried away, its bibles and archives burnt to cinders. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 111.
1916 Apr Trabzon Hundreds of Greeks and Armenians massacred in the Christian quarter of Trabzon. MASSACRE OF CHRISTIANS BEFORE EVACUATION OF TREBIZOND (1916, April 21). Daily Herald (Adelaide, SA : 1910 - 1924), p. 5. Retrieved November 3, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article124874666
1916   Thersa (Gr) 2,000 men from seven villages around Thersa (possible location Kiremitli) fled to the nearby mountain Mezire kagia on a cliff named Agrotsal and hid inside a cave for months. The Turkish army surrounded the cave and demanded they all come out but they were afraid and refused to do so. Half of them were later killed or died from hunger or disease. Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Eastern Seashores of Pontus. Volume D. Center of Asia Minor Studies, 2nd ed, Athens 2018, pp. 320-321.
1916   Söğüteli At Sümüklü (Gr: Simikli) women fled from marauding Turks and threw themselves and their children into a river to avoid being caught. Other women were killed and then thrown into the river. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Western Seashores of Pontus and Paphlagonia. Volume E. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2016. In Greek. p.114.
1917 Jan Kaynarca The Turks burnt the village and four other surrounding Greek villages and massacred 250 residents. Exact location unknown.
Assumed location on map.
The Exodus: Testimonies from the Western Seashores of Pontus and Paphlagonia. Volume E. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2016. In Greek. p.512.
1917   Akkaya Just prior to Easter 1917, Topal Osman Ağa set fire to the church while congregants were inside. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Western Seashores of Pontus and Paphlagonia. Volume E. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2016. In Greek. p.147.
1917 Apr Kerpiçli Ottoman soldiers burn down the lower precinct of the village then conduct a large scale massacre of its inhabitants. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Western Seashores of Pontus and Paphlagonia. Volume E. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2016. In Greek. p. 350.
1917 Aug Ordu Women, children and elderly men were towed several miles out to sea and dumped overboard. None survived. 1.000.000 GREEKS KILLED: The New York Times. Jan 1, 1918. Retrieved February 17, 2018
1917 Aug Karaperçin Greeks from the village Kertsembe fled to Karaperçin. Ottoman forces there committed a large scale massacre of men, women and children and burnt all the homes. One eye witness saw over 100 dead bodies most of them with knife wounds. Some had their severed genitals cut off and placed in their mouths. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Western Seashores of Pontus and Paphlagonia. Volume E. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2016. In Greek. p. 415.
1917 Oct Bafra After distributing arms to Turkish peasants, Greeks, including children were massacred. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 124.
1918   Mount Lebanon Between 1915-1918, approximately 200,000 Christians were starved to death during the Great Famine of Mount Lebanon, many of them Rûm (Greeks). The population of Mount Lebanon was predominantly Christian and ~80,000 Greeks lived there. The famine was caused by a food blockade to the region orchestrated by Young Turk, Djemal Pasha. Ashburton Guardian, Volume XXXVI,
Issue 8504, 18 July 1916, Page 5.  
1918   Sanoyia (Gr) Early one morning at the beginning of 1918, çetes arrived at Sanoyia. They slaughtered women, raped girls, deported the males and took farm animals and belongings from houses. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Eastern Seashores of Pontus. Volume D. Center of Asia Minor Studies, 2nd ed, Athens 2018, p. 364.
1918 Apr Kars The Ottoman Army advancing in the Caucasus conducted wholesale massacres of Greeks, Armenians and American missionaries. MASSACRES BY TURKS. (1918, April 30). Hamilton Spectator (Vic: 1870-1918), p. 4. Retrieved February 16, 2018,
from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article119501423
1918   Rize Turkish bands attacked Rize and massacred some of the population. Schools, churches and houses were plundered and demolished. Residents were compelled to emigrate to Russia. Out of 2,000 people only 4 remained. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 113.
1919 Mar Buca Reports of many murders and robberies by bands of Turks against Greeks in the region. The bodies of 50 Greeks found decapitated and partially burned. Great Unrest Reported Over Disposition of Smyrna Region, The New York Times, 21 March 1919.
1919 Jun Nazilli Massacre of several Greek families. Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.10. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf>
1919 Jun Atça 47 Greeks massacred and the priest burned alive. Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.22. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf>
1919 Jun Köşk 47 people massacred in Köşk, including a doctor and the priest, who was first blinded and had his nose and ears cut off. Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.22. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf>
1919 Jun Umurlu More than 90 Greeks massacred at Umurlu and 70 bodies found. Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.22. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf>
1919 Jun Karapelit All the young children of the village were taken to a place close to the Black Sea near the village Hocaali. They were then placed in a circle and shot while musical instruments were played loudly. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.293.
1919 Jun Aydin Massacre of approx. 1,500-2,000 Greeks by Kemalist forces in June 1919. Hundreds of bodies found burnt alive, some after having been raped, and bodies found thrown into wells. Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. Document 3, No 33, p.12. Web. 20/07/2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf>
1919 Aug Çantaköy Turkish gendarmes and bandits surround Greek town of Çantaköy (Gr: Tsento) and massacre Greeks. Turks Massacre Greeks, Alexandria Gazette, 12 Aug 1919, p.3.
c.1919   Manisa 115 Greeks massacred by Turkish gangs in the Manisa region. Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.24. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf>
c.1919   Alaşehir 47 murders reported in Alaşehir and neighboring regions. Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.26. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf>
1919   Halitpaşa Mass slaughter of Greeks at Halitpaşa (Gr: Papazli). Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.24. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf>
1919   Ilgin 7-8 wealthy elected Greek notables were hanged by Turkish authorities. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.363.
1919 Summer Kaklik 15 wealthy Greek men from Honaz are shot at the gorge of Kaklik deresi and their valuables taken. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.417.
1919   Yenipazar 70 Greeks massacred and thrown in the Meander river. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.177.
1919   Ankara Late 1919 or 1920: Notables and elders taken to a nearby location and massacred. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.377.

Click here to view list of massacres from 1920-1923 


Some of the sources used to compile the list:  

- Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919.
- Carroll N. Brown Ph.D and Theodore P. Ion D.C.L. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey since the beginning of the European War. Oxford University Press, New York 1918.
- Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople: Press of the Patriarchate, 1920.
- The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek.
- The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek.
- The Exodus: Testimonies from the Central Regions of Pontus. Volume C. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2013. In Greek.  
- The Exodus: Testimonies from the Western Seashores of Pontus and Paphlagonia. Volume E. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2016. In Greek.
- Yeghiayan, Vartkes. British Reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007.
- Faltaits, K. The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia (Izmit) Massacres of 1920-1921. Cosmos 2016
- Puaux, René. La Mort de Smyrne. Édition de la revue des Balkans. Paris 1922.  
- Puaux, René. Les derniers jours de Smyrne. Paris 1923.
- Central Council of Pontus. Black Book: The Tragedy of Pontus. Athens 1922.
- Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919.
- The Exodus: Testimonies from the Eastern Seashores of Pontus. Volume D. Center of Asia Minor Studies, 2nd ed, Athens 2018. In Greek

 

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