The Greek Genocide (or Ottoman Greek Genocide) refers to the systematic extermination of the native Greek subjects of the Ottoman Empire before, during and after World War I (1914-1923). It was instigated by two successive governments of the Ottoman Empire; the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) party, and the Turkish Nationalist Movement of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.  It included massacres, forced deportations and death marches, summary expulsions, boycotts, rape, forced conversion to Islam, conscription into labor battalions, arbitrary executions, and destruction of Christian Orthodox cultural, historical and religious monuments. It is likely that the victim toll of the Greek Genocide was somewhere in the vicinity of 1 - 1.5 million. 

The New York Times: January 13, 1915.

The first phase of the Greek Genocide commenced in 1914 in Eastern Thrace where entire Greek communities were forcibly and often violently expelled or deported to the interior of Asia Minor. Other measures used to persecute Greeks in this region were the boycotting of Greek businesses, killings, heavy taxation, seizure of property and prevention from working on their lands. In the Spring and Summer 1914, the ethnic cleansing of Greeks along the western shoreline of Asia Minor was carried out. These operations, including those in Eastern Thrace, were planned and executed by the CUP using regular and irregular forces including members of the CUP's paramilitary unit, the Special Organization (Teşkilât-ı Mahsusa).

Following the outbreak of the First World War, Ottoman Greek males aged between 21-45 were forcibly conscripted into labor battalions (Amele Taburları) most of them perishing under appalling conditions while being forced to do hard labor with little food or water. In 1915, under the direction of German military personnel, the CUP deported Greek communities from the Dardanelles and Gallipolli regions under the pretext of military necessity. These Greeks were not permitted to take anything with them and the goods in their shops were later sold by Ottoman authorities. They were deported to the interior and to Muslim villages where they were forced to choose between Islam or death. In most cases, before deportations took place, Ottoman gendarmes (police) and çetes (armed irregulars) seized money and valuables from communities, committed massacres and burnt churches and schools. According to figures compiled by the Ecumenical Patriarchate, by 1918, 774,235 Greeks had been deported from their homes, many of them to the interior of Turkey, never to be seen again.

The Evening Independent, St.Petersburg, Florida: October 17, 1917, p.6.

Following the Ottoman Empire's defeat in the First World War, prominent leaders of the CUP were given death sentences in Ottoman Courts-Martial for their role in deportations and atrocities against Greeks during the war. But the post-war formation of the Turkish Nationalist movement under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk interrupted proceedings to bring the perpetrators to justice. Between 1919-1922, the Kemalist Nationalist movement continued the CUP policy of persecuting Greeks throughout Ottoman Turkey. In the region of Pontus, the Kemalists burned numerous Greek villages and sent women and children to the interior where large numbers perished. In the region of İzmit alone, over 30 Greek villages were burned and 12,000 Greeks were massacred. In September 1922, the Kemalists burned the city of Smyrna (today Izmir) to the ground, not before committing a large scale massacre of the city's Greek and Armenian inhabitants. An ultimatum was then issued forcing all Greeks to leave Turkey or face deportation to the interior (certain death). While women, children and the elderly were allowed to leave Turkey, able-bodied Greek males were refused exit and were sent to the interior where most perished in slave labor camps or were massacred.

Remembrance days:

April 6 (Eastern Thrace region)
May 19 (Pontus region)
September 14 (Asia Minor as a whole).

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Last edited: 31 Mar 2020

 

 

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